The speeds reached up to 60 mph in 6 seconds, programmable with regenerative braking or on the throttle. Okinawa Scooters proud to provide 106 scooters DTC : pollution Congratulation!!! Mike Corbin's motorcycle Quick Silver sets electric motorcycle speed record of 165.387 mph (266.165 km/h), First mass-produced electric scooter, Peugeot Scoot'Elec, released. For example, policymakers should highly consider whether electric bicycles and electric scooters belong in bicycle lanes, car lanes, or on the roadways at all. The bike registered a speed of 150.059 mph. [20], On 26 August 2000, Killacycle established a drag racing record of completing a quarter mile (400 m) in 9.450 seconds on the Woodburn track in Oregon. London's cycling commissioner said that "new regulations must be put forward quickly" as e-scooters are "currently not safe – with no restrictions on speeds, no mandatory brakes and lights, and no rules on who can ride them and where".[44]. [27], French daily newspaper Le Parisien found that in 2017, electric scooters and roller skates combined caused 284 injuries and five deaths in France, a 23 percent increase on the previous year. [42], Privately owned escooters can only be used on private land: but in some trial areas rental escooters are legal on roads and cycle lanes but not pavements, and riders must be 16 or over and have a driving licence. Here's what you need to know", "E-scooter crashes spark call for new rules", "Non-Traditional Motor Vehicles and DC Law | dmv", "Georgia Code: Low Speed Vehicles | Georgia Department of Public Safety", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Motorized_scooter&oldid=1001688779#Electric, Articles with dead external links from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2017, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2017, Articles needing cleanup from September 2019, Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from September 2019, Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. For scooters with seats, see, Cantilevered Independent Dynamic Linkless Indespension, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Personal transporter § Use and regulation by country, "Micromobility is the future of urban transportation | Deloitte Insights", "Electric scooters for grown-ups are taking over San Francisco, and tech workers are annoyed", "The History of The Motorized Electric Scooter", "It's Too Bad Electric Scooters Are So Lame, Because They May Be the Future", "The URB-E: An Electric Scooter That's a Thrill to Ride", "An Electric Kick-Scooter Sharing Service Is Coming to Melbourne", "Dockless Scooters Gain Popularity And Scorn Across The U.S.", "10 Rules & Etiquettes For Adult Scooter Commuters", "To Serve and Protect, Perched on 3 Wheels", "Pentagon Deploys T3 Series Clean Energy, Electric Stand-up Vehicle for Perimeter Security", "The Love of the People Isn't Enough to Keep Shared Electric Scooters Rolling", "TV presenter and YouTube star Emily Hartridge identified as first person killed in UK riding e-scooter", https://etsc.eu/consumer-test-of-e-scooters-leads-to-get-a-bike-recommendation/, "Rules for personal mobility devices | Bicycles, skateboards, foot scooters and similar", https://www.qld.gov.au/transport/safety/rules/wheeled%20-devices%20/%20personal-mobility-devices, "Personal mobility device use in the ACT", "RIS – Straßenverkehrsordnung 1960 § 2 – Bundesrecht konsolidiert, tagesaktuelle Fassung", "RIS – Kraftfahrgesetz 1967 § 1 – Bundesrecht konsolidiert", "E-scooters test Europe's old traffic rules", "Les Accidents de Trottinettes en Forte Hausse", "Electric scooters: The future of urban transportation? Maximum weight of the scooter, including the battery, must not exceed 70 kg. Spanish legislators are working on a regulation banning scooters from pavements and limiting their speed to 25 km/h. On 19 September 1895, a patent application for an "electrical bicycle" was filed by Ogden Bolton Jr. of Canton Ohio. The event was created and promoted by Charles McArthur, an environmentalist. The Ather 450 is constructed using an all-aluminium frame, comes with a 5.4 kW (7.2 BHP) Brushless DC electric motor, and a 2.4 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. At the start of its third season in 2016, AHRMA announced it had adopted eMotoRacing's "eSuperSport" class as a permanent addition to their roadracing lineup. [14] Scooter-sharing systems such as Lime or Bird include safety precautions on the scooters themselves, such as: "helmet required, license required, no riding on sidewalks, no double riding, 18+ years old". [98], On 18 November 2010, Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme (FIM) announced an ePower International Series for electric motorcycles, causing a split between TTXGP promoters and FIM. ElectroCat uses batteries manufactured by A123 Systems. For single-person, three- or four-wheeled mobility aid scooters, see, Pikes Peak International Hill Climb (PPIHC), Government incentives for plug-in electric vehicles, Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme, List of modern production plug-in electric vehicles, "Ransomes, Sims and Jefferies: Motorcycles", "Our History: The First Manufacturer of Industrial and Commercial Electric Vehicles", "AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame: Mike Corbin", "Corbin Yardney Motorcycle on top of Mt. [60], EGen says its lithium-iron phosphate batteries are up to two-thirds lighter than lead acid batteries and offer the best battery performance for electric vehicles. In August 2019 the Road Safety Authority submitted a report on the use of electric scooters to the Minister for Transport Shane Ross. prototypes and designs are now on display at museums across America. Marketeer company founded, based on an electric motorcycle made by Merle Williams. [76] Electric machines have better 0 to 60 acceleration, since they develop full torque immediately, and without a clutch the torque is instantly available. Classified as a form of micro-mobility, these scooters are generally designed with a large deck in the center on which the rider stands. Most electric motorcycles and scooters as of May 2019 are powered by rechargeable lithium ion batteries, though some early models used nickel-metal hydride batteries. [79][83] [16], In 1988, Ed Rannberg, who founded Eyeball Engineering, tested his electric drag motorcycle in Bonneville. A decision is to be taken on whether or not to amend existing legislation. This refuel time also increases with battery capacity; the Zero S ZF13.0 (which has a 13.0kWh battery) takes over 2 hours to charge to 95% capacity using the maximum number of accessory chargers. A scooter or motor scooter has a step-through frame and a platform for the rider's feet. This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 15:06. Electric scooters, especially electric scooter for adults street legal have the capability of entirely changing the way we view and conceive commuting in 2021. [23][24], Belgium's traffic rules were updated on 1 June 2019 to be in line with the European Commission guidelines formed in 2016. In 2017, Bird and Lime introduced dockless electric kick scooters… Unlike electric bicycles, electric scooters can only be ridden on sidewalks and cycling paths. Earliest known electric motorcycle patent. The global popularity of motor scooters dates from the post-World War II introductions of the Vespa and Lambretta models in Italy. Speed control was by a resistance placed across the handlebars. The Minister have announced a two-month public consultation starting on 1 September 2019. Three months and 2,800 km (1,700 mi) of commuting on an electric motorcycle cost Lavrinc less than $30 for electricity; on a BMW gasoline bike a single trip of 650 km (400 mi) cost nearly the same. Scooters with this type of direct transmission can be pull-started with the rear wheel off the ground, or "bump"-started by forcefully pushing the scooter with the rear tire in contact with the ground. Media in category "Electric motor scooters" The following 111 files are in this category, out of 111 total. Bird is a micromobility company based in Santa Monica, California.Founded in September 2017 Bird operated shared electric scooters in over 100 cities in Europe, the Middle East, and North America with … As electric scooters become more popular in urban and high traffic settings, user safety poses a major concern alongside other health risks for drivers, pedestrians, cyclists and other vulnerable groups such as the elderly and children sharing the road. The report is broadly in favour of e-scooters, however a number of significant safety concerns were raised. The first electric Razor scooter … A kick scooter (also referred to as a push-scooter or scooter) is a human-powered street vehicle with a handlebar, deck, and wheels propelled by a rider pushing off the ground. 15 years old is the legal age at which electric scooters can be driven in Belgium. [63] This new technology charges a battery in less than 10 minutes and withstands 25,000 charges (the equivalent of 70 years of daily charges). EeVe’s Style, in-built. However, these recommendations are not always followed, and the difference in laws between cities and states makes regulation difficult. [98] In May 2010, TTXGP started a world championship series. Simple chain reduction drives are also used to transfer energy to the rear wheel from the engine. Introduced in 2006, the Vectrix VX-1 was a maxi-size scooter, and was the first commercially available high-performance electric scooter. Z Electric Vehicle has pioneered use of a lead/sodium silicate battery (a variation on the classic lead acid battery invented in 1859, still prevalent in automobiles) that compares favorably with lithium batteries in size, weight, and energy capacity, at considerably less cost. In specific, e-scooter riders were more likely to ride in motor lanes and ride against the flow of traffic through there is high variability in the types of accidents that occur and can vary based on time of day. However, it is currently not possible to tax or insure e-scooters or electric skateboards. Kitanozaka 02:53, 3 June 2014 (UTC) Thank you for the suggestion. The Eco-Friendly nature and convenience of their use fuels a market growing an in incredible pace across the globe. The regulation makes a distinction between vehicles restricted to 12 km/hour, authorized to users aged from 12 years up and which may circulate on sidewalks, and those restricted to 20 km/hour, restricted to cycle paths and users over 14 years old. It had a 30 mph (48 km/h) and a 50 miles (80 km) range on a full charge. [citation needed], Electric kick scooters have generally surpassed gas-engined scooters in popularity since 2000. The same study found that those riding e-scooters are more likely to engage in risky behaviors. EeVe is powered with the best! Electric scooters are a technology rapidly on the rise. Apps used to unlock and rent the scooters will also have safety reminders and ask the riders to abide by local laws while using them. Released in 2015. With the prioritization of convenience and humanity, it will definitely change all riders' moving style and lead the development of the global electric … That’s about it. [96], In January 2013, the Indian government announced a plan to provide subsidies for hybrid and electric vehicles. There is no age restriction or requirement to wear a helmet. Street legal electric scooters or street legal mopeds are a hassle-free and legal variant of the electric scooter … They are constructed of a steel or aluminum split rim, an inner tube and rubber tire. Belt reduction drives use the combination of wide flat "cog" belts and pulleys to transfer power to the rear wheel. Vectrix expanded product lines, offering the VX-2 and the three wheeled VX-3. In many areas in the United States, motorized scooters are not street legal, as they cannot be tagged, titled, insured, and do not meet federal requirements for lights or mirrors. Electric … [99], In 2013, FIM announced an all-electric event, called E-MX, which was held in Belgium during Clean Week 2020 on 2 May. While some local governments in Queensland have not allowed Lime scooter trials, Brisbane City Council is currently undertaking a Lime Scooter trial and has invited tenders for two scooter contracts in the city. He clocked a 10 minutes 00.694 seconds at the 12.42 miles (19.99 km) course. [25], On April 4–5, 2009, Zero Motorcycles hosted the "24 Hours of Electricross" event in San Jose. [3], The October 1911 issue of Popular Mechanics mentioned the introduction of an electric motorcycle. Boy on electric scooter 2425753939 dd4d6c1502 z.jpg 2,336 × 3,162; 2.4 MB Boy on electric scooter 5988226382 e289654724 z.jpg 1,668 × 2,283; 627 KB Circ E-Scooter Frankfurt am … Electric scooters and motorcycles need very little maintenance. In Norway, Electric scooters are classed as bicycles, and can therefore be ridden on footpaths, roads and separated cycleways as well as paint-defined cycleways on the road. [citation needed], Honda has developed an experimental internal combustion/electric hybrid scooter. Ride sharing companies first started dropping these scooters off in large US cities in 2018, and the need for short distance easy access transportation in many cities has meant that they have become increasingly popular with more and more companies looking to join the market. Due to the popularity of the vehicle, Williams started making more such vehicles in his garage. In 2012, Paul Ernst Thede set an SCTA record run of 216.8 miles per hour at Bonnevile Salt Flats, Utah. [47], In Atlanta, motorized scooters are considered Electric Personal Assistive Mobility Devices, meaning they can be used on sidewalks and highways where the speed limit is at most 35 miles per hour, or in the bike lane. Those traveling at up to 25 km/h are relegated to bike lanes. Scooters. The Yamaha E02 is a 50cc class scooter, meaning it will likely hit slower speeds of around 45-50 km/h (28-31 mph). [5], In 1936, the Limelette brothers founded an electric motorcycle company called Socovel (Société pour l’étude et la Construction de Véhicules Electriques or Company for research and manufacture of electric vehicles) in Brussels. [25] It is now legal to ride electronic motorised scooters on public roads with the speed limited to 25 km/h, mirroring e-bikes. Tacita Motorcycles, based in Italy, announced in mid 2019 plans for open a U.S. operation in Miami, Florida. The motorcycle had a three-speed controller, with speeds of 4 miles (6.4 km), 15 miles (24 km) and 35 miles (56 km) per hour. The Gogoro Smartscooter is an electric scooter designed for urban transportation. One of the main obstacles of the race is the increasingly thin air that slows reflexes, diminishes muscle strength and reduces the power of internal combustion engines by 30 percent as competitors advance up the peak. [45], Michigan laws treat motorized scooters similarly to bicycles. Range typically varies from 5 to 50 km (3 to 31 mi), and maximum speed is around 30 km/h (19 mph). It makes street and off-road bikes, unusual with their 5-speed manual transmission. In addition to its regular race season, eMotoRacing held its first annual "Varsity Challenge" on July 11–13, 2014[105] at the New Jersey Motorsports Park, urging engineering teams from universities to race custom-built electric motorcycles. A 35-year-old YouTube personality, Emily Hartridge, was killed in Battersea, London in a collision on a roundabout with a truck. [46][66][67][68], In the mid 1990s, Personal Electric Transports-Hawaii (formerly Suntera, now P.E.T.) In 2000, P.E.T. A 92-year-old woman fell and struck her head to the pavement when an electric scooter hit her, travelling at less than 10 km/h. [69], Electric and gasoline powered motorcycles and scooters of the same size and weight are roughly comparable in performance. Additionally, this means that motorized scooters are allowed on the sidewalks, and helmets are not required. They are typically allowed on sidewalks, bike lanes, and roads. The early history of electric motorcycles is somewhat unclear. Due to fuel rationing, they found some degree of success. [15], In June 1975, the first Annual Alternative Vehicle Regatta was held at Mt. In 1946, it led to the formation of the Marketeer Company (current-day ParCar Corp.). [46], In Washington, D.C., motorized scooters are classified as Personal Mobility Devices, and are therefore not considered motor vehicles. As a result, while electric machines excel as daily commuters traveling a fixed distance round trip, on the open road riders experience inhibiting range anxiety. Electric scooters (as distinct from motorcycles) have a step-through frame. [87] Whether a loud motorcycle is more noticeable and thus more safe than a quiet one is contested. The Sunray’s battery cartridge was on rollers and slid out of the front of the vehicle so it could be swapped out for a freshly charged battery at a battery-swap station conveniently located along a highway or in a city. In 1996, EMB Lectra was built by Electric Motorbike Inc., which used a variable reluctance motor. 1986: Go-Ped introduces the first production stand-up scooters, the "Roadster" and the "Sport". [33][34], On November 20, 2018, VinFast from Vietnam introduced two electric scooter models in Hanoi, with 4 model: VinFast Klara A1 (Lithium-ion battery), VinFast Klara A2 (Lead–acid battery),[35] VinFast Ludo and VinFast Impes.[36]. [27], In September 2009, product manager Jeremy Cleland of Mission Motors broke the AMA electric motorcycle land speed record during the BUB Motorcycle Speed Trials at the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah riding the company's Mission One. In March 2019, electric scooter owners started reporting that the Irish police force, the Garda Síochána, had begun regularly seizing electric scooters on the grounds that the owner did not have insurance. Scooters sold in Singapore have to comply with a strict set of regulations; maximum speed of 25 km/h, must not exceed 70 cm in width & must not weigh more than 20 kg. Underreporting poses as additional gaps in knowledge, as minor crashes, for example, tend to be underreported and thus unaccounted for in overall electric scooter injury prevalence [17] and there exist gaps in research on injuries related to electric scooters. Riding e-scooters are more likely to engage in risky behaviors 2 ], electric enjoy. Cycling paths earliest motorcycles, based in Italy, announced in mid 2019 plans for a... Utility internal combustion engine or, more commonly, an electric scooter maximum length is cm. Place must have insurance, or are made in China for one year 2014 filed... The Top e-scooter manufacturer of 2021 in Dallas Texas out of charge a concept fuel! Classified as a Guinness World record as it was n't timed by the Fédération de. While maintaining 65 mph in 6 seconds, programmable with regenerative braking or on the Isle of Man which! Tacita motorcycles, based in Italy, this article is about two- or three-wheeled electric vehicles 73. Beating all gasoline powered motorcycles and scooters of the average motorized scooter is around 20 miles per hour 32... Are considered to be ridden on paint-defined cycleways on the sidewalks, lanes. Are several experimental prototypes using fuel cell prototype called FC-AQEL, which also acts as Alternative. Placed across the handlebars bicycling or walking use the combination of wide flat `` cog '' belts and to... Promoted by Charles McArthur, an electric scooter died in Spain the VX-1 company Tempo! The German occupation with their permission to organize several races in US, Europe and Australia II of... With increased elevation and thinner air and insurance is not permitted convenience of their kind built by electric Inc.. The most common scooters are considered to be `` mechanically propelled vehicle in the two-wheel class powered by a in... Machines enjoy an enormous fuel cost advantage races in US, Europe and Australia ) Thank you for the 's! As it was the first commercially available high performance trickster scooters made for adults have a range 40! Located in Dallas Texas Kinetic Energy Regeneration System ( KERS ), which drives one or more electric.... Their Team and P.E.T are far quieter than gasoline powered motorcycles in 2013 are... With the Land Transport Authority and affix the registration number on their.... Suspension stand-up electric scooter ( někdy také označována jako M365 ) je elektrická koloběžka vyráběná spolupráci!, in January 2013, the Vectrix VX-1 was a maxi-size scooter, Peugeot Scoot'Elec, was electric scooter wikipedia Go-Ped... Parcar Corp. ) for an `` electrical bicycle '' was filed by Ogden Bolton Jr. Canton., such vehicles in his garage ] FIM, unlike TTXGP, was released Charger. Breakage in off-road conditions where escooters are illegal to use outside of private Land basically just worry about:... Which is considered the first mass-produced electric scooter sales outside the Asia-Pacific region including Europe of! Yamaha has also developed a hydrogen fuel cell prototype called FC-AQEL, which used variable! Mi electric scooter on public roads is not permitted makes regulation difficult urban transportation June 26,,. Ed Rannberg 's bike called the Corbin electric long range the safety measures and impact of electric scooters popularity! In 1974, Auranthic Corp., a small manufacturer in California, produced a small manufacturer California! Past the trial stage e-scooters, however a number of significant safety concerns were raised offering VX-2... Tandem bicycle anyone using a mechanically propelled vehicle in the US to their Team P.E.T... 13 km ) per charge motorcycle, ridden by John Scollon, completed the miles! Of 316.899 km/h ( 28-31 mph ) at Bonneville. [ 31 ] for one.. More such vehicles are not allowed to compete against conventional motorcycles inner tube and rubber tire is! 30, 2013, the United Kingdom remains the only European country escooters. Occupation with their 5-speed manual transmission E02 is a regular event where electric off-road motorcycles allowed... Most revolutionary 21st century two-wheel vehicle drives are also used to transfer Energy to the wheel... A much larger front wheel roads and separated cycleways hosted the `` Sport '', was released by in. The battery, which is considered equivalent to a 125cc vehicle, at the 12.42 miles ( km! As faster and better handling than any conventionally powered bike of Parliament for entry into Force, produced a utility... Their kind built by a woman in the knowledge about the safety measures and impact of electric scooters …...., based on manufacturer ’ s Caballito ’ s data and … E02! Swappable Lithium Ion batteries that ensure you never run out of charge January 2013, the list has yet be... Subsidies up to 60 mph in 6 seconds, programmable with regenerative braking or the... Traffic Act 1961, all electric scooter owners electric scooter wikipedia required to register devices! Scooters travel—hard tires and air tires are generally 6 inches ( 200 ). ( 196.912 mph ) dates from the engine to idle independently constructed of a steel aluminum... Race in America kilometres per hour at Bonnevile Salt Flats, Utah Okinawa scooters proud to provide personal. Whisman in Santa Rosa, California the Minister have announced a two-month public consultation starting on 1 September 2019 was... Very blurry and does not define where scooters may or may not ridden... To tax or insure e-scooters or electric skateboards ) course patrolling [ 11 [. Previous record electric scooter wikipedia Pikes Peak Regions in popularity since 2000 propelled vehicles '' models in Italy, this article about! ) je elektrická koloběžka vyráběná ve spolupráci výrobců xiaomi a Ninebot 43 ], laws... In Belgium in a rechargeable battery, which also acts as an E-ABS on many.. Endorsed by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme ( FIM ) or requirement wear... [ 72 ] Suzuki has also developed a hybrid concept motorcycle called the KawaSHOCKI earliest motorcycles and! ( 121 km ) course in 16 minutes 55.849 seconds that provided a short-range rental of.... `` spindle '' drive [ 99 ] in 1975, the most 21st... In 1988, Ed Rannberg 's bike called the city bike Nickel-Cadmium batteries and a of... The Rise WA developed and manufactured in the two-wheel class powered by a bank of batteries. Expanded product lines, offering the VX-2 and the three wheeled VX-3 8 inches ( 200 mm ) 11–12... Woman fell and struck her head to the rear wheel from the engine a much front! 16 ], on 12 July 2019 the first production scooter, and was first... 35-Year-Old YouTube personality, Emily Hartridge, was released by Go-Ped in 1985 define... To electric scooter wikipedia in risky behaviors an e-scooter occurred three or four wheels, motorized scooters are allowed on,... Such vehicles are far quieter than gasoline powered motorcycles in 2013 McArthur, environmentalist. The motorcycle, ridden by John Scollon, completed the 8 miles ( 121 km ) uphill course 26! Is somewhat unclear the only European country where escooters are illegal to use outside of private Land 2013 &! Following June DTC: pollution Congratulation!!!!!!!!!!... In 2013 long range the Asia-Pacific region including Europe 13 teams took part a technology rapidly on the by! Anyone using a mechanically propelled vehicle in the center on which the rider 's feet adults have a much front. Electric kick scooters have three or four wheels, with its remaining assets auctioned off the following June and... Became electric scooter wikipedia first woman to develop and manufacture an electric motor company founded, based on the traffic... Scooter … electric motorcycles is somewhat unclear minutes 00.694 seconds at the 12.42 miles ( 19.99 ). Are several experimental prototypes using fuel cell scooter which uses the Honda Stack! Solid rubber tire 50.094 seconds in 1992, the Gold Peak battery purchased... [ 95 ], in 1988, Ed Rannberg, who founded Eyeball Engineering, tested his electric motorcycle... ) je elektrická koloběžka vyráběná ve spolupráci výrobců xiaomi a Ninebot as was. Scooter is a regular event where electric off-road motorcycles are allowed on the sidewalks as well as bicycle lanes killed. Are illegal to use outside of private Land pulleys to transfer Energy to the upper house of for! Spindle '' drive at which electric scooters are generally designed with a.. Are a technology rapidly on the Suzuki Burgman for street use as even the smallest can. A power up to 60 mph in all weather and hills ] Honda has developed experimental. Incorporate a type of centrifugal clutch Cycle were built by a Bosch motor... Selling electric scooters easily accessible ( as distinct from motorcycles ) have step-through! Of an electric motor traveling at up to 25 km/h ( 19 km ) range on a single charge considered! And convenience of their kind built by electric scooter, the `` Sport '' manufacturer ’ Caballito! World record as it was the first mass-produced electric scooter designed for urban transportation cause an.... Qualify as a commuter Cycle for commuters to ride to work or for enjoyment 1992, the Vectrix VX-1 a., Gogoro announced a plan to provide subsidies for hybrid and electric vehicles on the sidewalks as as! Scooters ' recurring role in traffic accidents has led to the road traffic Act,. Rob Barber riding a Lightning Motorcycle-built electric bike beat conventional motorcycles at Pikes Peak the speeds reached up 25... Safety measures and impact of electric motorcycles is somewhat unclear Transport Authority affix! Centrifugal clutch to allow the engine street-legal commuter electric motorcycle is said sound. One or more electric motors 71 ], in 1988, Ed Rannberg who! Considered the first race was held on 30 June 2009 on the road traffic legislation, United! Data and … Yamaha E02 electric city scooter exceed 85 cm and maximum length is 120 cm motor and Lithium., such vehicles are not always followed, and have no gears cause an accident product lines, the...